E. H. wml,
MAN I FOLD Original Filed Feb. 1918 mva/wtoz ELUQAE HVB/EIL.
Patented Oct. 28, 1924.
NITED STATES PATENT OFFICE. u
EDGAR H. WEIL, OF CLEVELAND, OHIO, ASSIGNOE TO THE VITREOUS ENAMELING COMPANY, 0F CLEVELAND, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO.
Uriginayepplicetion led February l1, 1918, Serial No. 216,605. Divided and this application lecl June 1, 1920. Serial Ro. 385,440.
To all whom it may concern.'
Be it known that L'EDGAR H. Wan., a citizen of the United States, residing at Cleveland, in the county of Cuyahoga and State of Chio, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in and Relating to Manifolds, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to a manifold, more particularly a manifold for engines of the internal combustion type.
This application is a division of my application Ser. No. 216,605, tiled Feb. 11, 1918.
En modern internal combustion engine and self propelled vehicle construction ractice, it has been found advantageous, an in fact, essential to reduce, in one way or another, without sacrificing strength and durability, the weight of many of the parts and elements constituting rthe engine. With the increased cost of fuel and tires, this question has perhaps become foremost in the minds of the automobile manufacturer and engineer.
In solving this problem in connection with a manifold for internal combustion engines, serious conditions have to be met with rel spect to the high temperatures of the exhaust gases and chemical and atmospheric actions both of which are materially increased Where accompanied by the heat of the exhaust gases.
The object of the invention is to rovide a relatively light, durable manifol formed from sheet steel having its inner surface or both its inner and outer surfaces coated with a material which adequately protects it or them from the heat of the exhaust gases and from chemical action due to any causes y whatever.
For the purpose of illustration, I have, in the accompanying drawing shown and herein described one form of device embodying my invention.
Referring to the drawing, Fig. 1 is an elevation of a manifold embodying my invention.
Figs. 2 and 3 are longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively, of the manifold.
In the drawing, 1 indicates as an entirety a manifold. In the manifold shown b way of example, the walls a thereof are s aped to provide a main section l* and branches posed.
l" adapting it for use in a Ford engine. The manifold 1 is formed from sheet metal, preferably sheet steel, which not only insures a light-weight manifold but permits manufacture at relatively low cost.
B indicates a relatively thin coat of vitreous porcelain enamel uniformly applied to or upon the inner surfaces of the manifold section 1 and its branch members a; B in dicates a relatively thin coat of vitreous porcelain enamel uniformly applied t0 or upon the outer surfaces thereof. As shown, the coats B, B', completely and uniformly cover the surfaces of the manifold to insure that no surfaces of the metal are ex- The coat or coats B, B', serve to adequately protect the metal Walls a of the manifold so that it may be made from relatively thin material to reduce its'weight and also from material that is relatively che@ and easily worked, such as sheet iron or steel.
am aware of the fact that such material easily deteriorates on account of chemical action, especially where such action is accompanied with heat, and may be burned by the extreme heat of the gases, but l have found that a manifold coated with vitreous porcelain enamel, especially when uniformly coated on both its inner and outer surfaces, is durable and capable of withstanding the heat of the exhaust gases and chemical actions of all kinds. As the enameled surface of surfaces of the metal is or are entirely and uniformly coated or protected, it will readily be understood that no surfaces of the metal are left exposed and accordingly no chemical action can take place even in the presence of the high temperatures of the exhaust gases. Accordingly, the manifold, although made from relatively thin material '(thereby effecting a material reduction in cal action readily takes place, is so protected from the elements, the heat of the exhaust gases, as well as the chemical action incident to these gases, that it may be used as anl exhaust manifold for internal combustion engines with entirely satisfactory resultsA under any and all conditions.
It may be noted that with a coatin 'of vitreous porcelain enamel on one or thi Walls of a relatively thin sheet metal manifold, the sheet metal is strengthened or stiffoncd thereby, even though such coating be comparatively thin so that a relatively stiff construction is produced from relatively thin sheet metal. By taking advantage of this property of enamel as well as its wellknown rotcctive properties, I am enabled to pro uce an extremely light manifold whiclrwill have great strength and rigidity and which will be durable because the metal is protected from the attack and chemical action of the hot exhaust gases from the internal combustion engine.
So far as preventing burning of the metal ou account of the high temperatures of the exhaust gases is concerned, this result is accomplished by the coating B. To prevent chemical and atmospheric action on the outside of the manifold, as Well as to give it a neat appearance, I prefer to provide the coat B in all instances.
To those skilled in the art, many modifications of and Widely differing embodiments and applications of my invention will suggest themselves, Without departing from the spirit and scope thereof. My disclosures and descriptions herein are purely illustrative and are not intended to be in any sense limit- IVhat I claim is:
1. A manifold for internal combustion engines and the like comprising an inte ral body of sheet metal having a relatively t 'n, substantially uniform coating of vitreous enamel upon its inner and outer surfaces whereby a relatively light, sti, protected metal manifold is produced.
2. A manifold for internal combustion engines formed from relatively light sheet metal and having a substantially uniform coating of vitreous enamel upon its inner and outer surfaces. t
3.A A manifold for internal combustion engines formed from relatively light sheet metal and having a relatively thin, substantially uniform coating of vitreous enamel upon one of its surfaces, whereby a relatively light, stiff metal manifold is Iproduced.
4. A manifold formed from sheet metal and lhaving its interiorwalls coatedl with vitreous porcelain enamel.`
5. A manifold formed from sheet metal and havin its interior and exterior walls coated with vitreous porcelain enamel.
6. A manifold for an internal combustion engine formed from sheet steel and having its inner surface coated with a relatively thin uniform coat of vitreous enamel.
7. A manifold forA an internal combustion engine formed from sheet steel and having its inner and outer surfaces protected by relatively thin uniform coats of vitreous enamel.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto